According to Yi-Fu Tuan, "although the residents of an area may have a strong sense of place, this sense is not necessarily self-conscious. … Residents not only sense but know that their world has an identity and a boundary when they feel threatened, as when people of another race wants to move in, or when the area is the target of highway construction or urban renewal" (Suttles, 1972) (453-454).
However, when residents of an area confront a threat like above example, collective egoism (NIMBY) may instigate a strong sense of place and sense of identity. In this situation, how can we distinguish a strong sense of place as a result of a threat from collective egoism? People may try to have a collective identity and a sense of community in order to realize their goals and interests.